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Ockham borotvája

2012.06.06

 

 

 

 

Az oldalt itt találod

https://mondogatjuk.wordpress.com/mondogatjuk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tumblr_l9xaz7qwhq1qawlupo1_5001.jpg

 

Ockham borotvája

Ez egy olyan filozófiai elv, amit nem is Ockham talált ki, és nem is kell hozzá igazi borotva. Akkor szoktuk használni, amikor két történés közül kell kiválasztanunk a leginkább lehetségest. Az elvet szinte minden olyan területen alkalmazzák, ahol ”dönteni kell” de nincs mi alapján. Ennél persze sokkal bonyolultabb a történet…

 

Ockham

guillermo-de-ockham.jpgWilliam Ockham 1300 körül élt, és a világmindenség nagy kérdéseire próbált logikus válaszokat találni. Nem keltett ez akkoriban nagyobb feltűnést a filozófusok között, inkább az okozhatott gondot, amikor teológiai kérdésekre is kivetette az általa alkalmazott elveket. Miután az egyházból kiközösítették, IV Lajostól kért menedéket, továbbiakban politikáról és teológiáról írt.

 

Az elv

Két fő elvet tulajdonítanak neki, az egyik a mindenhatóság elve, a másik a gazdaságossági elv, ez utóbbi lenne a borotvához kapcsolodó.

 

De miért borotva?

"Borotvával hasítsuk ketté a szükségtelen hipotéziseket!" Állítólag így fogalmazott Ockham, mikor a gazdaságossági elvet bizonygatta. Maga az elv már létezett, Ockham csak felhasználta azt, de annyiszor és olyan sok formában, hogy idővel az ő nevéhez kötődött. A borotva, lehetne olló, vagy radír, vagy bármi ami kivonja a létezésből a szükségtelen feltételezéseket.

 

Mert mi az a gazdaságossági elv?

ockham-s-razor.gifErről bezzeg olvashatunk oldalakon át, különböző tudományos, néha egészen elvont témakörökben, és számtalan példával magyarázva, ameddig a végén a megértésből eljuthatunk, a mégsem egészen érthető, sőt igencsak ellenmondásos, aztán nagyon zavaros és egészen érthetetlen állapotig is.

Ocham borotvája, a gazdaságossági elv, a szükségtelen többlet elve, a logikai borotva, a takarékosság elve, a tömörség elve elnevezéseivel is ugyan azt a tételt fogalmazza meg:  A sokaság szükségtelenül nem tételezendő! Tehát ha egy tény, két különböző, de logikus további tényezőkre vezethető vissza, akkor azt kell választanunk, amiben kevesebb plusz feltételezés szükséges a magyarázathoz. Aki nem hiszi, járjon utána:

http://mek.oszk.hu/05200/05243/05243.htm

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam_borotv%C3%A1ja

http://www.szabadgondolkodo.hu/szkeptikus/szotar/occam.php

http://ertem.hu/occam-borotvaja/

http://forum.szkeptikus.hu/viewtopic.php?p=39881

 

http://www.agent.ai/main.php/www.../img/main.php?folderID=166&articleID=2149&ctag=&ii

 

Érdekességek

A jó tétel minden időben, és minden helyzetben alkalmazható, így olyan témakörökben is találkozhatunk vele, amiről a 14. században még nem sokat tudhattak az emberek.

http://www.csatolna.hu/hu/erdekes/CsA/erdekes2125.htm

 

William of Ockham

vagy más írásmóddal Occam (1285?-1349) egy angol ferencesrendi barát volt, a 14. századi skolasztikus teológia és filozófia jeles képviselője. Nevéhez fűződik a híres elv, amit Occam borotvájaként említenek és alkalmaznak még ma is a különféle tudományok művelői. Nevét utca és penzió őrzi Münchenben, ahol öregkorában élt. De viseli egy programnyelv is, amelyet sokprocesszoros rendszerek párhuzamos műveleteihez fejlesztettek ki.

Éles esze úgy vágott, mint a borotva, amikor kitalálta, hogy: Non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem. Talán jobban érthető így: Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora. Neeem? Akkor próbáljuk egy újabb változatban: Pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate. Már világos, ugye? Ha most sem, sebaj - nézzük, kik és hogyan használják, értelmezik:

  • A filozófus. Ateista válaszok a hívők tipikus kérdéseire - Occam borotvája. Ne szaporítsd szükségtelenül az entitásokat. Tehát: ha valamit meg tudsz magyarázni egy bizonyos entitás létezésének feltételezése nélkül, akkor tedd azt. Mindig a legegyszerűbb megoldást kell választani.
  • A vegyész. Sejtelem és Ockham borotvája. Hiábavaló többhöz folyamodnunk, amikor kevesebbel is megtehetjük ugyanazt.
  • A csillagász. Hale személyes nyilatkozata az UFÓkról. Ha egy jelenségre több lehetséges magyarázat létezik, mindig a legegyszerűbbet kell választani, amely az összes megfigyelt tényről számot ad.
  • A fizikus. What is Occam's razor? Keep it simple, stupid. (Ne bonyolítsd el, te hülye! ford. CsA) Az egyszerűség elve egy heurisztika, egy ökölszabály, de sokan a fizika egy axiómájának tekintik. Nem az. Egész jól működik a filozófiában és a részecskefizikában, néha a kozmológiában vagy a pszichológiában is, ahol a dolgok várakozáson felül elbonyolódhatnak. De itt már talán egy Hamlet idézet többet ér, mint Occam borotvája: "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy." (Több dolgok vannak földön és égen, Horatio, mintsem bölcselmetek álmodni képes. ford. Arany J.)
  • Az informatikus. Hogyan működik a tudomány? A tudományos problémák megoldásánál az Occam borotvája nevű elvet használják. Az elv a konkurrens elméletek közül azt fogadja el, amely kevesebb előfeltételezést igényel.
  • A mesterséges intelligencia kutató. Occam - Eine planungsbasierte Informations-Beschaffungsmaschine A gépesített cselekvéstervezés folyamatában alkalmazzák az elvet, annak érdekében, hogy a különféle információs forrásokból adatgyűjtéssel a legegyszerűbb és legolcsóbban végrehajtható tervhez jussanak. Az internetes metakeresők programjainak alapjaiban ugyancsak felbukkan az Occam elv és a belőle kifejlesztett algoritmus.
  • Az Encyclopedia Britannica. Ockham's razor. Law of economy or Law of parsimony (a takarékosság vagy zsugoriság törvénye).

OK, már érthető. Szóval Occam borotvájával le lehet nyisszantani a gondolkodásból a fölösleget, a terjengősséget. Be is fejezem.

És ismét egy félrefordítás (Leiter Jakab után), az Ockham-féle borotva, ahol az elvek márkanevekké változnak: http://leiterjakab.blog.hu/2011/08/29/az_occam_fele_borotva

 

 

Volt ilyen címmel Dr House rész és Eurékában is használták az elvet, további előfordulásai (film, sorozat, műalkotás, formáció, stb.) kerestetnek!

Film: Kapcsolat (Contact) című sci-fi.
 

 

occam.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Double-Dong Darling

(dxdt8920151, 2021.08.22 21:03)

I'm 43, divorced, I have two grown kids who are out on their own. I won't go into the specifics of how and why I became a lesbian. Just a couple of years ago I got involved with a woman who teaches science and biology at a local school. One thing led to another and one night she asked me over for dinner and afterward we proceeded to get drunk and I started telling her how long it had been since I'd been fucked. I got hot and horny talking about sex and finally Carol excused herself and when she came back a few minutes later she was wearing a robe. "Martha, I can take care of your problem, if...
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She gripped one tit really hard and let out a long, slow, moan. His Supremacy pumped His cock further into Legensa’s throat and Tetenia trembled a bit. He grabbed both Mia and Lyushka’s tits, as their bodies were still His armrests.The other four Queen Priestesses on the stage came forward, swaying to the music, and then each fell to their knees beside Anya. They kept their hands at their sides but their bodies and hips swayed musically, sensually. The drums grew more intense. Anya reached around, squeezing her tits with one arm as her other hand frantically ran across her pelvis, tugging...
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Then she sucked the hole in an effort to draw out all the pre cum she could. She moaned in satisfaction as she did so and he was doing a little moaning of his own as she did what he wanted. “Now take in the head,” he said as he watch her. She had her eyes closed as she did his bedding. This was heaven and he hoped that it would never end. With the head of his pecker now in her mouth he tolled her to start pressing more of it in and suck as she did so. She followed his command and sucked as she pressed her head down on the hard cock that was now in her mouth. It was lager and she had some...
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Eternal Awakening: Chapter Four

(orangeglade9326635, 2021.08.22 20:02)

Richard was impressed by how they all came together and tried to figure out the perfect one and he realized that the class was a pretty close knit group of friends. He figured there was no way he was going to fit in with them quickly and he began to have flashbacks of when he was at his own school and always left out of everything that happened. After a minute the girls walked back to their seats and a single girl in the very front row remained standing, her hand raised and a triumphant smile on her face. It seemed they had agreed her question was the most important and given her the go...
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Cindy and I were both very young and new to sex when we met in the army, both in our 20s, but very horny.After going out for a few months, and her having the episode with her first black man, I was worried she might become hooked to black dick since I was being shipped out to Korea and she would be alone for at least 8 months, knowing she would be horny.I was realistic about the situation, as after all I wasnt just sitting around either.When we got back together she told me about some of her episodes, and I found out more later.Turns out she was very busy and popular with the brothers back there.This is how she related some of her stories to me.I will try and be as accurate as possible, though I do tend to embellish sometimes, but these are basically her words:
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She looked down at my cock slightly rocking back and forth then she looked up and our eyes met, "Yeah, I think you like", she said. Pulling her nightie off over her head and tossing it to the floor she crawled higher, turned around and positioned herself for a 69. She took my meat deep into her mouth as I pulled her to my face. I reached out to tease her with my tongue and gave her little flicks up and down her slit. She started taking me in deeper then pulled me back out, sucked hard on my head then plunging back down throating me. She then begun to flex her hips in the typical fuck...
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Ghost Girl Chronicles

(Carloswet, 2021.08.22 19:03)

Continuing directly from the end of Chapter 2. Thank you all for your comments and critiques. :)
I..am..so..sorry. G.G. cries through broken sobs. Anger and sadness paint my features as I look at her.
Silently willing her to tell me why. To give me some sort of explanation of how Ashley is ok, of how shes just
sleeping. I hear a small whimpering and I realize its coming from me and I start to cry fresh tears. What is
your name? I ask her, a steely calm coating my voice, in spite of the tears flowing from my eyes.
https://telegra.ph/Ghost-Girl-Chronicles--Chapter-3-Sacrifice-06-13


Sam and his three hockey teammates had been at the bar for over three hours.Tabitha with her friend Dawn entered and sat down at a table nearby.Neither Sam nor Tabitha knew each other, but that was about to change.
Dawn, an artwork of beauty, passed by the table, flicking her long dark brown hair over her shoulder.All four sitting at a round table nearby forward tilted their heads to get a glance of her tight curvy ass cheeks snuggling inside her full length denim jeans.Bobs eyes fixating on her long legs right down to her gold sequin shoes.Steve panting and thinking of what shes wearing underneath, if anything.
https://telegra.ph/Sam-vs-Tabby-Part-1-06-13


When I was sixteen years old, one my dads old drinking buddies said to me, one day, Son, you probably dont realise it now, but these are the best years of your life. Once you finish school, its all downhill from there. Mark my words on that. My heart kind of sank when he told me that, and I thought, You mean, this is as good as it gets?
https://telegra.ph/Remember-Me-06-13

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Her City

(BrianSpimb, 2021.08.22 10:10)

Alone, Kimberly just sat there, dressed in blue jeans, a black T-shirt, and a pair of black high-heeled boots covering her feet, the pants cuffs going over the footwears upper part. With her dark mane raised to the top of her classic looking head, beautiful Kim listened on and on as her stereo played a piece from Wagner, the prelude to Parsifal, an opera that turned her on; Wagners music especially doing something for her, its notes and measures having a gothic like quiescence, something which went well with her arcane and mysterious disposition.
https://telegra.ph/Her-City-06-13


I quickly learnt just how much she enjoyed being licked and teased and thrived on the challenge of pleasuring her with my tongue and lips.
She appeared to have more erogenous zones than three other women combined.
Licking and kissing her nipples her rock hard nipples would have her moaning with pleasure instantly.
When driving in the motor car she often wore tight slacks and just a light touch from me between her legs would have her moaning and telling me, That is turning me on.
The first time we made love was after an alcohol affected lunch and the sex was below par.
The next time was awe inspiring.
https://telegra.ph/TEN-INCHES-FOR-SARAH-06-13


okay lets begin with the details. I am 16 years old about 6 foot tall and a average weight about 75kg oh and my name is frank (i know it is a off name theses days)
It was the end of summer holidays andi was coming back from thedonna kebab shop when i saw the girl that was in my geography class and i secretly liked her.
Her name is brenda she is about 5 foot 7 inches and she was on the slim side but not too much her tits are not the biggest in the school but still well looked good on her.
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Auntie Courtney the Cougar Mamma

(Hedonist9169639, 2021.08.22 07:18)

I swiveled my bra around and it too landed on the floor. Nature took over and I instantly covered my large boobs and blonde bushy pussy; thinking that the young stud might be put off by seeing a 38 year old woman naked. “What are doing, you silly cow?” Lewis laughed as he roughly stroked his long rod; “Show me your tits.” I no longer had any pride to lose so waved my arms in a Salome fashion as he devoured my mature body with his eyes.“Fucking hell Courtney you are a beaut!” The young lad whistled his appreciation, “now come and suck my dick.” I sashayed the couple of feet...
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Discovery 2

(Prepossess2861778, 2021.08.22 06:12)

He looked down at the cute naked 13 year old sleeping next to him. Grinning he felt Ashley’s firm round buttocks pressing against his morning wood. He scrabbled around with his hand to find his cell phone and flipped it open. 7:14, he had time. Shifting his body down slightly Matt licked his fingers and inserted them between Ashley’s legs and into her cunt for lubrication. He then slipped his ready cock in place of his fingers, beginning the orgasmic grind. Despite the growing sensation in his lower area he noticed Ashley’s breathing getting faster. “Morning”“Morniaaaahhh” she replied as a...
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Possession (Pt 2)

(Libanomancy249316, 2021.08.22 05:09)

Suddenly Anna realises she’s remembering the events of that night. Trying to shake herself out of them Anna struggles for a second before giving up, knowing that she will have to relive them until the end.Watching as if through another’s eyes Anna sees herself walk across the foyer books into the hotel and goes to her room, later she comes back down and goes to the bar and takes a seat, she orders a drink and looks round picking out the solitary men, after a second Anna turns back and orders another drink flirting with the bartender. After half an hour she starts to feel herself becoming...
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Honey-Lee Stranded at a Truck-Stop

(CharlesLig, 2021.08.22 04:04)

We were in Lake City, Florida taking in an antique car show and sale.Paul had his heart set on picking up a 1958 Cadillac convertible to be offered the following day.Then he got the text! Emergency on oil drilling platform in the Sea of Japan!Down hole pressures fluctuating wildly!Your presence required Now! Your flight departing Gainsville Regional Airport, GNV 2100 hours for connections in Chicago.Be on it.
https://telegra.ph/Ch11-Honey-Lee-Stranded-at-a-Truck-Stop-06-13

Farie Dust 3

(Ailurophilia5369912, 2021.08.22 03:00)

As long as I kept my grades up, I was happy. Daisy would make me do things like join their sex games. Things would usally turn into an orgy, making Chris a very happy guy with three girls. He was rough with me but gental with Daisy and Kari.When normal sex, if you call that normal sex, would ge bored, Daisy always had a great idea. Shes tried things like blindfolding me or tieing me down. She would make me be naked for any sex game and now its starting to turn into everynight. She says to keep me in line she must spank me every night or whenever she feels the need. Afterward she tells me...
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The Visit_(3)

(Ian5Valvar7350183, 2021.08.22 01:58)

Holton," she replied, "there is a young woman out here who claims to be your wife and is demanding to see you!!!" "My wife," he exclaimed in surprise, "I'll be right there, thank you, Alice!!!" He strode over to the door and upon opening it, sure enough, there standing next to Alice's desk was Faye, his wife of three months!!! "Honey," he said in a slightly strained voice, "what on earth are you doing here, I am absolutely swamped!?!" "I just had to see you," she replied with a hint of desperation, "can we go into your office for a minute, please!?!" He was about to tell her he'd see her at...
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Carole's Story 07 – The New Boss

(TravisCOL9515585, 2021.08.22 00:56)

He put his hand on her thigh. “They get paid more, for doing more.” His hand came up slowly to her hip. He rested it there. She didn’t respond negatively to his touch at all. “Yeah, that’s right,” he said, moving his hand up further until he slowly ran his finger over her hard nipple. “You would be great.”She smiled and then looked over at the Boss. “I don’t think so,” he said. “Not right now anyway.” He laughed and stood up.“Too bad,” the man said, still holding onto her tit. “You would make a shitload of money.”“Dinner?” the Boss asked the group.“Sure,” was the reply.Carole picked...
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Husband Splits his Wife Open

(ElectricEel1158383, 2021.08.21 23:54)

Her husband, James, had been gone for so long, she couldn’t stand not being able to experience life and explore as a person. James had worked for only a few years as a world-famous travelling photograph in an upscale art registry. However, she felt the neglect, she knew that James had loved her, but he travelled so much while she waited and waited, not knowing that her husband had the same things in mind. It wasn’t that she hated or disliked her husband, it was the complete opposite. She and James had met in college, senior year, they quickly fell in love after sharing so many common...
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Dress Sexy

(Skulldugger5460211, 2021.08.21 22:51)

I nodded. Back to square one. But she was still in the black and white top. “And so if someone gives you the evil eye, what then, you slink away and put on a bra? What is there to be ashamed of?” A waiter, not the waitress, approached with the food. “Dinner’s up.” She sat forward, lifted her tits and sat them on the table in front of her.I had to sit back to make sure the poor guy had room to put down both plates, one a little closer to me. He looked only briefly at me. “Do you need anything else right now?” Val looked up and said no. He left.“I think he liked the show,” I said...
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Ethan's Revenge Part I

(Bleckhard1321013, 2021.08.21 21:48)

He locked the door and put the closed sign out, he grabbed her hand and said, "let's go out to the shop." Bonnie followed him into the shop as he lead her over by her car. He turned around to face her, his back to the car, "ok now I want you to suck my dick." Bonnie nodded and moved to her knees in front of him, "yes master." She fumbled with his belt, finally she got it unbuckled and unsnapped his jeans.She tugged them down his fat legs, along with his briefs, exposing his skinny 6" cock to her. Ethan looked down, over his fat gut, trying to see what she was doing as he felt her take his...
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The New Recruit

(Univoltine9678095, 2021.08.21 20:42)

She had volunteered for the service some time ago, and was looking forward to serving her country.The sign at the induction center read "new recruits this way", so she followed it and ended up in a room with eight young males who were also waiting for instructions. After some small talk, they were quieted by a sergeant, who entered with some male nurses. "OK, fall in!" he barked, as everyone lined up."First, the physical. Remove your shirt, shoes and pants and get ready for the examination" he ordered. "What room do you want me to go to?" asked Victoria. "You're...
https://univoltine9678095.wordpress.com/

The day Kay discovered she is bi-sexual, Ame part 1

(ZonePieta3444563, 2021.08.21 19:38)

Ame one of her fellow female instructors is just as fit and makes no secret that she is a lesbian.What Kay did not know is that Ame secretly crushed on her.Kay always saw herself as straight but did admit to herself that Ame is one sexy woman.Kay decided to jog to work that morning and decided to shower there just before work starts.She normally runs home or does her exercise in the afternoon but today she decided to do it in the morning because the afternoon she has an appointment.That morning went as planned until she entered the shower rooms...As Kay enters the shower area, she can hear...
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